How to grow basil, how to harvest basil, how to use basil. It’s all right here, folks.
Years ago an old farmer told my young boys that when they started dating, a big bunch of sweet basil in the car would win a girl’s heart.
Now, I don’t know about that, but growing and harvesting basil is one of my favorite summer garden activities. The fragrance definitely makes me happy!
Sweet basil is a culinary herb used frequently in Italian cooking and is the base for our favorite pesto. It’s not the only type of basil, though.
There are dozens of different cultivars to choose from. Some are purple, some are ruffled, and some, like Thai basil, are favored for specific cuisines. Pictured below is my African blue basil.
Basil is one of those wonderful garden plants that just keeps on giving.
Unlike radishes and beets that are done once you harvest them, basil plants provide their pungent goodness for months if you treat them right.
Harvesting basil so that it produces all summer long is easy.
Basil likes warm weather, heat, and well-drained soil.
Direct sow seeds after frost, once the ground has warmed. Trust me; trying to get a jump on it by planting too soon will just waste basil seeds.
If you opt to start basil seedlings for transplanting, a heat mat to increase the soil temperature will greatly improve your odds. Water deeply and regularly, and side dress with compost or well aged manure.
Varieties of basil
There are numerous varieties of basil. Italian sweet basil — Genovese — is the cream of the crop, and the favored basil for making pesto.
Basil varieties to look for include:
- Genovese basil
- Thai basil
- Cinnamon basil
- African blue basil (shown at top)
- Holy basil
- Lemon basil
There are many named varieties of basil from different origins. You can see more here.
These rules for harvesting basil apply for growing basil indoors, too, though an indoor basil plant might not need to be trimmed as frequently since it’s unlikely that it will grow as vigorously inside as it would in a hot garden bed.
When to harvest basil
You can harvest basil from a healthy, mature plant just about any time. Snip off the basil leaves you want to use in recipes as you need them.
When flower heads start to form on a mature plant, it’s time to really prune your basil. If the plant is allowed to flower, it will put energy into trying to regenerate itself by making seeds.
You want to prevent that, so that you’ll have a basil harvest all summer long.
If you see flower heads beginning to form on a young plant, pinch them off. Pinching the flower heads off prevents the plant from putting energy into producing seeds, allowing it to grow more foliage.
How to harvest basil for continued growth
Harvest basil regularly. Regular harvesting inhibits flower production on growing basil plants so the plant will continue to produce leaves and provide an abundant basil harvest.
To do so, simply use scissors to prune off the upper leaf clusters. Make your cut close to the set of leaves below.
Often, you’ll need to cut more than one leaf cluster, and that’s okay.
Just be sure to snip right above the set of leaves you’re planning to leave on the plant. New growth will sprout from that point, allowing you to harvest throughout the season.
You’ll want to make sure to leave some green growth so that the plant can do its photosynthesis thing, but the plant will be noticeably smaller.
Prune basil every week or two, to keep your plant healthy. The cut stems and leaves are your basil harvest.
I have almost a dozen plants and these provide enough basil every time I harvest to make two batches of pesto – one to eat fresh, one for the freezer.
Besides girls and pesto and Italian food, here’s another reason to grow basil: Bees.
Bees love basil
Trouble is, in order to maintain a continuous harvest of sweet basil leaves growing all summer long, the flower heads need to be removed.
Allowed to flower, the plants will go to seed and stop producing those fresh lovely leaves.
Luckily, there’s an easy solution. Plant several extra basil plants. Once you’ve harvested the first batch of leaves, allow a few plants to go into flowering mode.
The bees will appreciate it, and you can continue harvesting leaves from the plants you’ve designated as “yours.”
Saving basil seeds
I’ve had good success with saving and replanting basil seeds for a sustainable basil harvest, year to year
If you want to gather seeds, choose one basil plant as your seed producer. Let it flower and watch as those flower heads turn to seeds. Allow the seed to brown on the plant.
If wet weather threatens, you’ll want to clip them and bring them inside to dry.
Pull the dry seed pods from the stem. Roll dry pods around in the palm of your hand to remove the small black seeds.
Seal fully dried basil seeds in a paper envelope and store in a cool, dry place. Saving heirloom seeds from year to year is easy to do and will save you the expense of buying seeds.
Using your basil harvest
I use fresh basil leaves all summer long snipped into in salads, wraps, sandwiches, and for flavoring soups and pasta. By far, though, our favorite way to use it is to make pesto.
We spread pesto as a base for wraps, on egg salad sandwiches, and of course, use it in pasta dishes.
I freeze pesto in small glass jars for use all through the winter months. I love adding spoonfuls of it to soup!
20+ Ways to Use Basil (that are NOT pesto)
- Preserving the Harvest [Schneiderpeeps]
- Basil Garlic Aioli [Self Proclaimed Foodie]
- Roasted Tomato Basil Soup [Cooking Classy]
- Basil Chimichurri [Go Go Go Gourmet]
- Peach Basil Salsa [Homestead Honey]
- Orange Basil Dressing [Green Healthy Cooking]
- Basil Oil [Real Food Real Deals]
- Basil Ice Cream [A Beautiful Plate]
- Basil Cheesecake [Food Network]
- Strawberry Basil Bruschetta [Jo Cooks]
- Basil Butter [My Recipe Magic]
- Strawberry Basil Moscow Mule [Marla Maridith]
- Basil Salt [The Rising Spoon]
- Blueberry Basil Tart [Baking Part Time]
- Fontina & Blackberry Basil Grilled Cheese [How Sweet it is]
- Lemon Basil Mojito [Cookie and Kate]
- White Bean Artichoke Basil Toasts [Pinch of Yum]
- Caprese Quinoa Salad [Simply Quinoa]
- Parmesan Basil and Lemon Wafer [Food Network]
- Herbed Sel Gris [Joybilee Farm]
This post was originally published in July, 2011; updated June 2018.